Other Names: Black Partridge, Indian Francolin
Range: Southern Asia, from Cyprus and the Caspian region east through India.
Black Francolin are rare among most Francolinus species in that there is pronounced sexual dimorphism. The males have black faces, chin and breast separated by a chestnut collar; white cheek patches are the most noted feature, these oval-like patches are behind and slightly below the eye. The back mottled brown, sides barred with white; bill black, legs reddish brown with a small spur that develops with age.They have very odd feet – they are tiny for a gamebird.The males do grow very blunt spurs, very slowly not worthy of the name until the bird is around 3 years old. Females are brown with black and white barring; the most noted feature is the rust colored half-collar on the napeolor is found mainly on the back of the neck. It has a length range of 33 to 36cm and weight approximate about 453 g and the size of Black francolin is 9 to 16 inches.
Black francolins appear to be found in scrubby habitats with plenty of cultivated crops tall enough to offer shelter and open beneath to provide escape routes and easy travel. They prefer the areas of thick vegetation, usually near water. They are not forest birds but will frequent brush land and wood edges associated with grass land. They appear to be more closely associated to water than chukars are, and in drier areas.Black Francolin had earlier been hunted and netted extensively thus resulting in considerable decrease in population. Now, with hunting ban in force, they are making a gradual comebackThe Black Francolins are usually seen in pairs or small droves of up to five birds. They leave the undergrowth early and late in the day to feed in the fields, never staying too far from the thickest cover. These birds are secretive, shy and suspicious of humans, and thus hard to observe and photograph. They are Fast runners and move along the ground when approached and fly only when the end of cover is reached. They fly strong, fast and low to the next thickest patch.The food consists of a wide variety of seeds and insects. May also eat small mealworms and wax worms, but be careful when feeding to chicks as they are prone to toe-picking. Food consists mainly of grain, grass seeds, fallen berries, shoots, tubers, termites, ants and insects.The black francolin only flies when disturbed.It has a Pheasant’s explosive flight, but prefers to creep away unseen.
The call of the Black Francolin, described as a loud ringing klik cheek-cheek-cheerakik or "kik-kik-kik"," kwee-kweeeee-kwee" can be heard in the mornings and evenings and almost all day during the breeding season. The male calls standing on a earth mound, bund, rock or a low tree branch and is soon joined by other birds answering from all directions.They usually produce once the birds are around 12 weeks old or so.
April to June
Monogamous (The condition of having only one mate during a breeding season or during the breeding life of a pair)
Clutch Size: 8 to 12
Egg color: The color of the egg is white-spotted Olive or pale brown.The are rounded.
Incubation Period: 18 to 19 days.Only the hen incubates the eggs.
Breeding & Nesting:
Francolins normally nests in a bare ground scrape from late March to May. The male may be seen standing on a rock or low tree attracting attention with its extraordinary creaking call. It may be heard all day long in April, during nesting, and less persistently in March and May as well as the summer months. Both parents tend chicks after hatching. Young stay with parents through their first winter. The most likely breeding locations are Savanna, Grasslands, Scrub vegetation areas under the cultivated crops. They have a loud call during the breeding season. Males may also become aggressive during the breeding season, make sure there is plenty of cover and escape routes for the hen and it maybe necessary to house her separate and allow limited access for breeding only. They are generally monogamous in the wild and it is best to house only pair per aviary. Well planted aviaries with little surrounding traffic would be best for breeding. They are fairly winter hardy, but always provide some shelter during the coldest months breeds from late March to September depending on the range.
thanx for sharing ;;;khan bhai.......Any one have breeding experience of francolins(kala teetar)???????